Meaning of delegation of authority
All activities are not performed by one person. Authority should be provided to the subordinates too. Process of transferring authority and creation of responsibility between superior and subordinates to accomplish a certain task is called delegation of authority. It can take place without decentralization. It can be withdrawn by delegator at any time. It minimizes the burden of managers of unit, departments or plant. Relationship is between superior and immediate subordinates are indicated. It is technique of management used to get the things done through others. It is confined to manager and subordinates. Authority is only delegated, not responsibilities. Very important to management process Control remains in hand of superior who supervise the activities of subordinates. It is an art of management science. When authority is not given to subordinates there is no performance. Delegation is the process of sharing power and work (deliver the power from one to another).
Principles of delegation of authority
1. Principle of parity of authority and responsibility – parity of authority and responsibility is one of the important principles of delegation of authority. There is equality in assigned task and power to do the work. Authority to the subordinates is given by the superior on the basis of assigned task. So Authority to the subordinates is given nether more or less than the task otherwise there can be improper utilization of authority and mismanagement of task.
2. Principle of absoluteness of responsibility – according to it, responsibility can’t be delegated. Only authority can be delegated. The person who delegates authority is himself responsible for his seniors.
3. Principle of unity of command – according to it, subordinates must be commanded by one superior, they should take their task from one superior and should be accountable for their responsibility toward the superior level of operation
4. Principle of functional definition of authority and responsibility – as per this principle. Duties and task assigned by the superior and the authority given to fulfill the task should be clearly explained and decided. But this subordinates can know about the limit of one’s right, duties and responsibility.
5. The scalar chain – according to it, authority flows from top to bottom. So that scalar chain is the basis of relationship between the superior and subordinates. It emphasizes the relation between superior and subordinates by which delegation will be easier.