Types of decision-making
1. Programmed and non programmed decisions: Programmed decisions are those which are normally repetitive in nature and are taken as a routine job and responsibilities. These types of decisions are made by middle level management in accordance with some policies, rules and procedures. They have short term impact. For example: – granting a leave to an employee, purchasing office materials etc. non programmed decisions are non repetitively taken by top executives. They need to collect data and analyze them and forecast the strategic plans.
2. Major and minor decisions: among different decisions some decisions are considerably more important than others and are prioritized. They are called major decisions. For example, replacement of man by machine, diversification of product etc. contrary to that, some remaining decisions are considerably less important than others and are not so prioritized. They are minor decisions. For example, store of raw materials etc.
3. Routine and strategic decisions: Routine decisions are those decisions which are considered as tactical decisions. They are taken frequently to achieve high degree of efficiency in the organizational activities. For example, parking facilities, lighting and canteen etc. strategic decisions are those which are related to lowering the prices of products, changing the product etc. they take more fund and degree of partials.
4. Organizational and personal decision: Organizational decision is taken by top executives. For official purpose. They affect the organizational activities directly. Authority is also delegated. Personal decisions are concerned to an employee. The executives whenever takes the decisions personally that is known as personal decisions.
5. Individual and group decisions: When a single employee is involved in decision-making it is called individual decision. They are taken by ole proprietor when the problem is of routine nature. On the other hand when the decision is taken in a large organization where important and strategic decisions are taken, it is a group decision.
6. Policy and operating decisions: Policy decisions are taken by top-level management to change the rules, procedures, organizational structure etc, and they have a long tern effect. Operational decisions are taken by low level management which have short term effect and which affect the day-to-day operation of the organization.