Alibi is the Latin term , which means ‘elsewhere’. Alibi is a piece of evidence that one was elsewhere and alleged act took place, an excuse.
As per Oxford Dictionary Alibi means that a claim or the evidence supporting it , that when an alleged an act took place one was elsewhere or an excuse of any kind , a pretext or justification.
According to Ballentines Dictionary Alibi means that a rebuttal of evidence of the prosecution by evidence that the accused was elsewhere that the alleged scene of the offence at the time of offence.
Section 28 of the Evidence Act 1031 lays down that ,if any law has laid down any such provision specifying that certain facts are to be proved by the certain party in the given situation, the same hold good if such situation does arise.
A defense that places the defendant at the relevant time of crime in different place than the scene involved and so removed there from as render it impossible for him/her to be guilty party.
These all definitions have lay down that Alibi means at the time of occurrence of crime he/she was not there. Plea of Alibi is the mode of defense taken by the accused that he/she was physically not present at a time of scene of offense by the reason of presence at another place. Alibi is different from all kinds of evidence; it is based on the premise that defendant is truly innocent. Thus Alibi is based on the theory that presence of else where is essentially is inconsistent of presence of accused at the place and the time of alleged occurrence and the participant in it.
Plea of Alibi is view as self defense or provocation. Basically legal burden lies on prosecution in criminal case and plaintiff in civil case. It does not means that defendant has no any burden of proof. The burden of proof lies on the party concerned as per the situation of the case .Usually the defendant does not legal burden in criminal case however they often have evidential burden. If defendant wishes to do more than merely deny the prosecution case and wishes to raise an affirmative defense that he/she will bear the evidential burden. Thus, in certain situation burden of proving a particular fact in issue may be laid by the law on the accused. Therefore, plea of Alibi is one of situation on which defendant has evidential burden to justify defense being consider seriously by the court. Once there is any evidence to support such ‘explanation’ than legal burden of disproving such explanation rest upon the prosecution.
Principle of Plea of Alibi:
Plea of Alibi is based on Roman principle ,”ei qui non negat incumbite probation”. It means who claims has to prove it not the party who negats.A person alleged too have done any act might introduce the fact that making it less possible that he/she was present at the time and place of the act and such facts are admissible even though they do not suffice to make his/her presence total impossible. Alibi if established is a complete defense to the charge of having committed the crime , the force of this defense is universally recognized. The principle of an alibi is that essential inconsistent with the presence at the place at the place and the time alleged, and therefore with personal participation in the fact. Thus the evidentiary fact is a new affirmative proposition consider as the factum probandum through it’s logical operator is negative one.
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