Liberalism is a political philosophy that is associated with scholars such as John Locke, Immanuel Kant and Adam Smith.
- Liberalism is optimistic about the human condition and the ability of humanity to achieve freedom, prosperity, and peace.
- Liberalism holds that human nature is basically good and that innate goodness makes societal progress possible.
- Liberalism is basically optimistic about improving international politics and argues that international system is not anarchic in nature.
- The world is a harsh and dangerous place, but the consequences of using military power often outweigh the benefits. International cooperation is therefore in the interest of every state.
- It describes international politics as evolving, becoming more imbued with interdependence, cooperation, peace and security.
- While seeing state as most important actors, highlight other kinds of actors-IGOs, NGOs, multinational companies, and international regime to constraints the state behaviors.
- Military power is not the only form of power. Economic and social power matter a great deal too. Exercising economic power has proven more effective than exercising military power.
- States are not unitary actors, and domestic forces, interests, and perspectives must also be considered significant factors in the international politics.
- International rules/international law can help foster cooperation, trust, and prosperity.