Liberalism is a political philosophy that is associated with scholars such as John Locke, Immanuel Kant and Adam Smith.

  • Liberalism is optimistic about the human condition and the ability of humanity to achieve freedom, prosperity, and peace.
  • Liberalism holds that human nature is basically good and that innate goodness makes societal progress possible.
  1. Liberalism is basically optimistic about improving international politics and argues that international system is not anarchic in nature.
  2. The world is a harsh and dangerous place, but the consequences of using military power often outweigh the benefits. International cooperation is therefore in the interest of every state.
  3. It describes international politics as evolving, becoming more imbued with interdependence, cooperation, peace and security.
  4. While seeing state as most important actors, highlight other kinds of actors-IGOs, NGOs, multinational companies, and international regime to constraints the state behaviors.
  5. Military power is not the only form of power. Economic and social power matter a great deal too. Exercising economic power has proven more effective than exercising military power.
  6. States are not unitary actors, and domestic forces, interests, and perspectives must also be considered significant factors in the international politics.
  7. International rules/international law can help foster cooperation, trust, and prosperity.

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