Manu has mentioned physical, spiritual and political basis of the state.

The political basis of the state comprises the executive, legislative and judicial organs. Executive consists of the King or swami or Raja, his council of ministers and his permanent civil services. The king is the head of the state. He should be endowed with various qualities, duties and dharma which he called in Rajdharma as follows:

  • The Lord created the King for the protection of all, taking eternal particles of Indra (King of deities), of Wind (Vayu), of Yama, of Sun, of Fire (Agni) of Water (Varun), of the Moon and of the Lord of wealth Kuber, thus Manu accepts the divine origin of Kingship. The king is a great deity in human form.
  • The King is subject to Dharma and should form ideal council of Ministers for consultations in all matters. The king should select his advisors, ministers, legislators and administrators from amongst the Vanaprastha.
  • The King should worship daily the aged Brahmin who knows the Vedas and pure. The king should have both qualities from Kshyatria and Brahmin, former is man of action having energetic temperament and later is preacher of Vedas having qualities of meditation, wisdom, self-discipline, purity, control of senses, service of fellowman and always modest.
  • King constantly should learn modesty from Brahmin for a king who is modest never perishes.
  • The King should shun various vices springing from love of pleasure and proceeding from wrath which all end in misery such as hunting, gambling, sleeping by day, excess with women, drunkenness, violence, treachery, envy and greedy, etc.
  • To preserve law and order in his kingdom and to punish offenders and to promote public welfare, the king should always be careful. Manu writes, “punishment alone governs all created beings, it alone protects them, watches over them while they sleep, so punishment is as to be identical with law.
  • Manu lays down a daily routine of the King. They are: Meditation, worship (of Brahmin and God), listening public complains, consultation with ambassadors, spies, army chief, inspection in all fields and administrative works and rest with a music.
  • Manu has regarded Dharma as rule of law which no earthly Monarch can ignore. The Monarch is responsible to the people, monarch derives its authority from the people. People owe loyalty to the ruler only when the latter discharges its duty of protecting them properly.
  • The capital should be well fortified by the construction of strong forts of different kinds.
  • Taxes should be collected from rich people only.
  • Well prepared for war at any time in case of external attack, no dependence upon others in war.
  • Establishment of diplomatic relationship with other nations properly.

Thus the king holds his high office so that he may protect the people, help everyone in his own self knowledge and in the discharge of his own Rajdharma and duties.

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