Sociology XI Notes for Sociology Notes

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Relationship of Sociology with other Sciences

  • Sociology and History
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Sociology and Economics
  • Sociology and Physiology
  • Sociology and Biology

It is necessary to study and analyses between sociology and other sciences on the basis of their subject matter, attitudes, study methods, etc. Here, subject matter refers to the contents of the subject, attitudes, refer to the characteristics or features of the subject and study methods indicates the way how we analyse or study it.

- Sociology and History

Both sociology and history are concerned with social events. Sociology studies modern society where historical development of society such as different stages of human life, way of living, their culture/tradition, various institutions, etc. On the other hand history studies the past in systematic manner. It deal with the past political system, social system, cultural system, leadership system, Governance system, organizations and institutions, language, art, literature, etc. It is necessary to study the historical development of the subject or content to know it better. Otherwise, it is incomplete study.

Eg. Newar society  ® History ?

This means to study Newar society, it is necessary to know the historical development of that society.

As, sociology and History are inter-related with the above mentioned similarities, there are some differences also. They are as follows:

Sociology   History  
Is is abstract discipline of human experience and nature It is concrete discipline of human experience and nature
Sociology tries to find out the general law of the society It tries to narrate the past events In chronological order
Sociology is analytical and interpretive science History is descriptive science
Sociology is general science as it tries to establish generalization History is particular science as it seeks to establish the sequence of events.
Society is comparatively young science. As it has the history of just two centuries. History is aged social science which have very long history

- Sociology and Political Science

Sociology studies the various social activities and social relationships of human beings. Whereas political Science studies the political activities are also conducted within the society as it deals with the political organizations, their principles and their activities. It is also said that political science is incomplete without the study of sociological background. The state, government, nature of government organs, law and order, etc. are determined by social progress. In this context, the root ground of both sociology and Political Science are society.

“Historically, sociology has its main roots in Politics and Philosophy of history” – Gins Berg

The differences of Sociology and Political Science are as follows:

Sociology   Political Science  
Sociology is the general Science. Political Science is a particular science.
Sociology explains why and how human become social being Political Science assumes that human is a political being
Sociology studies both organized and unorganized community Political Science studies only the organized community
Its scope is winder as it studies the whole sociology Its scope is narrow as it studies the state and Government
It studies both conscious and unconscious activities of human beings It studies only conscious activities of human beings
Sociology is young science which is not even two century long Political Science is old Science which has very long history

- Sociology and Economics

Every society is influenced by economic factors whereas all the economic activities or process are determined by the existing social environment. Without proper social environment economics cannot go ahead. Economic factors pay significance role in every aspect of our life. Economic development, industrialization, production, distribution etc. cannot be made effective without the study of the society.

According to Karl Mars (founder of communism) made of production determines social relationship, ideology and thought. Likewise, another sociologist, Maclver remarks that economic phenomena is constantly determined by all kinds of social need and activity in turn they are constantly re-determining, creating, shaping and transforming social head and activities of every kind.

Sociology and Economics are different in the following ways:

Sociology   Economics  
Sociology is the general science Economics is particular science
Sociology is abstract in nature Economics is concrete in nature
Sociology considers human as social being Economics considers human as Economics being
The scope of sociology is wider. As it is considered with all social relationship The scope of economics is comparatively narrower as it is concerned only with economic activities
Sociology is a young science as its history is short Economics is old aged science as it has a long history</ div>
Sociology studies human in sociological prospective Economics studies human in economical prospective

- Sociology and Psychology

It is believed that sociology and psychology are closely related as there is no meaning of sociology without psychology and vice-versa. Psychology is related to consciousness which has to depend on sociology to understand human nature and behavior in proper way. Psychology provides the real fact regarding the matter of social structure, culture and social organizations to which an individual belong to develop the personality. In this sense sociology must have psychological basis as it depends on exploring the human nature in social relationship. It helps the sociologist to be realistic and more objective so that they can understand the human behavior properly.

According to Maclvers Page, when we study the individual nature or the consequences we need to go through psychological point of view. A part from this, there are following dissimilarities :

Sociology   Psychology  
Sociology is general science. Psychology is particular science.
Sociology studies the society from sociological point of view. Psychology studies the individual behavior.
It analyses social process. It analyses mental process.
The scope of sociology is wider as it studies all aspects of human beings and society. The scope of physiology is comparatively narrower as it studies only the mental aspects of society.
Sociology studies social organizations and institutions with their social relationships. Physiology studies individual as the members of society.
Experimental method is rarely used in sociology. Experimental method is mostly used in Psychology.

- Sociology and Biology

Sociology is the study of society including human evolution, their behavior, and their development and so on. It also studies genetics and sexual behavior which can be considered as one of the most important branches of Biology. As, Biology is related with the biological development of living organisms, the biological development of human beings also come under this.  Human behavior is influenced or affected by heredity or gene which is studied in Biology. Sociology also studies human behavior likewise one that major concerns of sociology is marriage that is based on Biology.

Herbert Spencer explained his theory of the evolution of society on the principle of natural evolution. So, nature and society are very close to each other.

The followings are the dissimilarities between them,

Sociology   Biology  
Sociology is the general science. Biology is pure science.
Sociology studies human as social beings. Biology studies human as biological beings.
Sociology studies human society and its development in sociological prospective. Biological studies human beings and other all living organisms as well as their living organisms as well as their development in biological prospective.
Sociology analyses the social process of human beings. Biological analyses the biological process of human beings and other living organisms.
Sociology is a young science as it came into existence later which does not have even two hundred (200) years history. Biology is old science which has a long history.


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