Biology XII Content
Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells of body. The abnormal cells are termed cancer cells, malignant cells, or tumor cells. It is also called neoplasm.
Types of Cancer:
There are many of cancers, as follows:
- Carcinoma: Cancer that begins in the skin or in tissues that line or cover internal organs
- Sarcoma: Cancer that begins in bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels, or other connective or supportive tissue
- Leukemia: Cancer that starts in blood-forming tissue such as the bone marrow and causes large numbers of abnormal blood cells to be produced and enter the blood
- Lymphoma and myeloma: Cancers that begin in the cells of the immune system
Causes of Cancer:
- Exposure of body to UV-radiation or X-rays for long.
- Carcinogens like mustard gas, benzopyerene etc
- Chewing tobacco and smoking causes lung and oral cancer.
- Viruses can also cause cancer.
Symptoms of Cancer:
They are as follows:
- May cause Fever (no clear infectious source, recurrent or constant)
- There may be Fatigue (not relived by rest)
- Person claims Weight loss (without trying to lose weight)
- Pain (usually persistent)
- Skin changes (coloration, sores that do not heal, white spots in mouth or on tongue, wart changes)
- Change in bowel or bladder functions
- Unusual bleeding (mouth, vaginal, and bladder) or discharge
- There can be Persistent cough or change in voice
- Lumps or tissue masses are seen
Diagnosis of Cancer:
- Blood test for blood cancer
- Bone marrow biopsy
- CT scans and MRI
- Analysis of molecular changes of cancerous cells
Treatment of Cancer:
- Medicines like ABC etc
- Interferon medicines
Prevention’s of Cancer:
- Avoiding smoking tobacco.
- Avoiding excess sunlight (by decreasing exposure or applying sunscreen) and many of the chemicals and toxins is an excellent way to avoid cancers.
- Avoiding contact with certain viruses and other pathogens also is likely to prevent some cancers.
- People who have to work close to cancer-causing agents (chemical workers,
- X-ray technicians, ionizing radiation researchers) should follow all safety precautions and minimize any exposure to such compounds.
- There are two vaccines currently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to prevent specific types of cancer. Vaccines against the hepatitis B virus, which is considered a cause of some liver cancers, and vaccines against human papillomavirus types 16 and 18, which, according to the NCI, are responsible for about 70% of cervical cancer.