Business Studies XII Content
Chapter 4 » Principles of Organization | Business Studies – XII
Principles of organization
1. Principle of unity of objectives: Organizational goals, departmental goals, and individual goals must be clearly defined. All goals and objectives must have uniformity. When there is contradiction among different level of goals desired goals can’t be achieved. Therefore, unity of objectives is necessary
2. Principle of specialization: Sound and effective organization believes on organization. The term specialization is related to work and employees. When an employee takes special type of knowledge and skill in any area, it is known as specialization. Modern business organization needs the specialization, skill and knowledge by this desired sector of economy and thus, efficiency would be established.
3. Principle of coordination: In an organization many equipment, tools are used. Coordination can be obtained by group effort that emphasize on unity of action. Therefore, coordination facilitates in several management concepts
4. Principle of authority: Authority is the kind of right and power through which it guides and directs the actions of others so that the organizational goals can be achieved. It is also related with decision-making. It is vested in particular position, not to the person because authority is given by an institution and therefore it is legal. It generally flows from higher level to the lowest level of management. There should be unbroken line of authority.
5. Principle of responsibility: Authentic body of an organization is top-level management, top-level management direct the subordinates. Departmental managers and other personnel take the direction from top-level management to perform the task. Authority is necessary to perform the work .only authority is not provided to the people but obligation is also provided. So the obligation to perform the duties and task is known as responsibility. Responsibility can’t be delegated. It can’t be avoided.
6. Principle of delegation: Process of transferring authority and creation of responsibility between superior and subordinates to accomplish a certain task is called delegation of authority. Authority is only delegated, not responsibilities in all levels of management. The authority delegated should be equal to responsibility
7. Principle of efficiency: In enterprise different resources are used. These resources must be used in effective manner. When the organization fulfills the objectives with minimum cost, it is effective. Organization must always concentrate on efficiency.
8. Principle of unity of command: subordinates should receive orders from single superior at a time and all subordinates should be accountable to that superior. More superior leads to confusion, delay and so on.
9. Principle of span of control: unlimited subordinates can’t be supervised by manager, this principle thus helps to determine numerical limit if subordinates to be supervised by a manager. This improves efficiency.
10. Principle of balance: the functional activities their establishment and other performances should be balanced properly. Authority, centralization, decentralization must be balance equally. This is very challenging job but efficient management must keep it.
11. Principle of communication: Communication is the process of transformation of information from one person to another of different levels. It involves the systematic and continuous process of telling, listening and understanding opinions ideas, feelings, information, views etc, in flow of information. Effective communication is important
12. Principle of personal ability: for sound organization, human resources is important. Employees must be capable. Able employees can perform higher. Mainly training and development programs must be encouraged to develop the skill in the employees
13. Principle of flexibility: organizational structure must be flexible considering the environmental dynamism. Sometimes, dramatically change may occur in the organization and in that condition, organization should be ready to accept the change
14. Principle of simplicity: This principle emphasizes the simplicity of organizational structure, the structure of organization should be simple with minimum number of levels so that its member can understand duties and authorities.