Estoppels: Definition

The expression ‘Estoppel ‘is derived from the French word ‘Estoup’ which means “shut the mouth”. When a  person tells  us something , we generally hear him/her .If he/she says something  different  or contradicting , we would not  hear  any more  and contradict such statement .Otherwise ,we shall  comply  with it.  a person  by declaration (act or omission) makes/induces another  to believe  a thing, can not  deny  its truth subsequently. The other person  cannot be stopped from  proceeding  upon  such  declaration. Estoppel  is a rule  of evidence , by which  a  person  is not  allowed   to plead  the contrary  of a fact  or state  of things, which  he/she has  formally  asserted  as existing.


As per the Sec.34 of Evidence Act 2031,”any body who represents to other  by word  or by writing or by conduct  any fact  which  the other  party believes on it and works  upon it, the first party is  stopped  from denying  the fact  in the suit that follows.”Similarly Sec.115 of Evidence Act 1872,embodies the principle of estoppels. It runs as follows, when  one person  has , by his declaration , act, or omission intentionally caused  or permitted another person  to believe , neither he/she nor his/her representative  shall  be allowed , in any  suit  or proceeding between himself/herself  and such person  or his/her representative , to deny  the truth  of the thing.