Isomerism


ISOMERISM
ISOMERISM
  Compounds having same molecular formula but different structural formula and differ from each other in   physical and chemical properties are known as “Isomers” and this phenomenon is called “Isomerism”.   Isomerism is due to the difference in the arrangement of atoms in molecules.
TYPES OF ISOMERISM
  Isomerism can broadly be divided into two main classes.
– STRUCTURAL ISOMERISM.
– STEREO ISOMERISM.

STRUCTURAL ISOMERISM
  When isomerism is due to the difference in the arrangement of atoms within the molecule, without any   reference to space, the phenomenon is referred to as “Structural Isomerism”.
Structural Isomerism is of five types:
1. Chain Isomers.
2. Position Isomers.
3. Functional Isomers.
4. Metamerism.
5. Tautomerism.
CHAIN ISOMERISM
  Chain isomers have same molecular formula but differ in the order in which C-atoms are bonded to
each other.
Example:
(n-butane)n_butane Iso-butane
POSITION ISOMERISM
  Isomerism caused by the difference in the position of functional group in the same chain is termed as   position isomerism.
Example:
dichloro_benzene

FUNCTIONAL ISOMERISM
  Functional isomers have same molecular formula but different functional group.
Example:
Ethyl Alcohol     ethanol              Dimethyl Ether        dimethtylether
METAMERISM
  This type of isomerism is due to the unequal distribution of carbon atoms on either side of functional   group. Metamerism belongs to same homologous series.
Example:
TAUTOMERISM
  It is a special type of functional isomerism in which the isomers are in dynamic equilibrium with each   other.