Types of estoppels

We may categories estoppels as follows:

a.Estoppel by Record:

It refers to judgment or public records, which  are believed  to be true. A person   who acts  in pursuance of judgment  or records cannot be estopped.

b.Estoppel by Deed:

It means stopped by an agreement .When a person enters  into an agreement  and his/her statement is furnished  their in , he/she shall not be permitted  to deny his/her statement.

c.Estoppel by Conduct(Estoppel in Pais):

When a person , by acts or words  or deeds induces another  person to believe the existence  of the thing  and make  him/her  to act upon it, he/she is stopped from denying the existence of such facts.

d.Promissory Estoppel:

The rule of “Promissory Estoppel” is recognized  by the court of equity in England. It is also known  as ‘Requisite  Estoppel ‘ or ‘New Estoppel.’ It does not come within the  meaning of sec.34 of Evidence Act 2031.It relates with future promise , where a person  makes a promise  to another thereby induces him/her  to do an act  to alter his/her  position; the person  promise  is stopped from  denying the truth of that promise. In the case of M.P.Sugar Mills vs. State of UP,Indian Supreme Court has  Evolved the concept of promissory estoppels in the first time in India.

Estoppel is rule of civil actions. It has no application in criminal proceedings and also does not operate in the question of law, which is where there is law everybody should act as per the law. Ple of estoppel does not count in such situation but admission has close relevance with estoppel. Estoppel is not a piece of evidence rather it is a procedure to stop the other party making contradictions. It is one of the important procedures, which has vital effect in any court proceedings.