Modernization


 ‘…modernization involves change in the basic values of society. In particular it means the gradual acceptance by groups within the society of universalistic and achievement-based norms, the emergence of loyalties and identifications of individuals and groups with the nation-state, and the spread of the assumption that citizens have equal rights against the state and equal obligations to the state.’-Samuel P. Huntington

Features of modernization 

    1. Dominance of Rational culture 
    2. Use of science and reasoning in lifestyle work and education
    3. From traditional  to democratic nation state
    4. Highest loyalty to the nation state than to religion, tribe, ethnic group or political organization. 
    5. Goal achievement based culture
    6. State laws are more powerful and dominant than religious and tribal laws.
    7. Use of meritocracy in recruitment (education or employment).
    8. From family based management of organization to professional based management. 
    9. Use of science and technology in economic, political and cultural sectors of society:
      1. Economic sector:  Use of technology in agriculture.
      2. Politics: Use of electronic voting system during elections or use of mass media for election campaign 
      3. Cultural sector: The use of internet to study Vedas, Quran or Torah or Bible etc.
  • Dominance of this life and this world attitude.  

Modernization in Nepal

  1. Modernization of the state
    1. From absolute monarchy to military dictatorship 
    2. Military dictatorship to Panchayat dictatorship
    3. Panchayat dictatorship to democratic state
  2. Modernization of education
    1. Religious and tribal education to formal education
    2. From propaganda based state led Panchyat education to facts based education
    3. From facts based to more reasoning and critical thinking based education.
  3. Modernization of culture
    1. From belief in caste system to the belief in the equality of everyone
    2. From belief in male superiority to the belief that men and women are equal. 
    3. Mono-cultural tendency to multicultural 
  4. Modernization of economy 
    1. From agricultural to trade, service and industry based economy
    2. From use of traditional equipment to the use of modern technologies. 
  5. Modernization of infrastructure 
    1. Traditional roads to roads that are planned by engineers and sociologists.
    2. Traditional transportation system (horse, elephants) to modern motors, planes etc.
    3. Traditional source of light to electricity and solar based electricity. 
  6. Modernization of Law
    1. Law based on religion to law based on human rights and democratic principals.
  7. Modernization of health
    1. From use of shamans to the use of doctors
    2. Hospital services in village level