‘…modernization involves change in the basic values of society. In particular it means the gradual acceptance by groups within the society of universalistic and achievement-based norms, the emergence of loyalties and identifications of individuals and groups with the nation-state, and the spread of the assumption that citizens have equal rights against the state and equal obligations to the state.’-Samuel P. Huntington
Features of modernization
- Dominance of Rational culture
- Use of science and reasoning in lifestyle work and education
- From traditional to democratic nation state
- Highest loyalty to the nation state than to religion, tribe, ethnic group or political organization.
- Goal achievement based culture
- State laws are more powerful and dominant than religious and tribal laws.
- Use of meritocracy in recruitment (education or employment).
- From family based management of organization to professional based management.
- Use of science and technology in economic, political and cultural sectors of society:
- Economic sector: Use of technology in agriculture.
- Politics: Use of electronic voting system during elections or use of mass media for election campaign
- Cultural sector: The use of internet to study Vedas, Quran or Torah or Bible etc.
- Dominance of this life and this world attitude.
Modernization in Nepal
- Modernization of the state
- From absolute monarchy to military dictatorship
- Military dictatorship to Panchayat dictatorship
- Panchayat dictatorship to democratic state
- Modernization of education
- Religious and tribal education to formal education
- From propaganda based state led Panchyat education to facts based education
- From facts based to more reasoning and critical thinking based education.
- Modernization of culture
- From belief in caste system to the belief in the equality of everyone
- From belief in male superiority to the belief that men and women are equal.
- Mono-cultural tendency to multicultural
- Modernization of economy
- From agricultural to trade, service and industry based economy
- From use of traditional equipment to the use of modern technologies.
- Modernization of infrastructure
- Traditional roads to roads that are planned by engineers and sociologists.
- Traditional transportation system (horse, elephants) to modern motors, planes etc.
- Traditional source of light to electricity and solar based electricity.
- Modernization of Law
- Law based on religion to law based on human rights and democratic principals.
- Modernization of health
- From use of shamans to the use of doctors
- Hospital services in village level