Procedure Relating to Collecting Evidences


Definition:

Evidences as something legally submitted to a competent court as means of determining the truth  or otherwise  of an alleged matter  of fact  under the investigation.

Objective of evidence collection:

  1. Establish relation between ‘scene of crime’ and ‘victim and suspect( as per the doctrine of exchange: when any two objects come in contact  with each other c/o Locard’s Principle that there is  always an exchange  of particles in between them. Exchange of particle in between them)

b.The court looks into existence and non- existence  of facts through the submitted evidences.

Site of evidence collection:



There are three site of evidence collection as

  1. Scene of crime:

After reaching the scene of crime , the investigation officer searches for evidence. They may use 4 methods of locating evidence are Spiral, Wheel, Zonal and Grid .Thus after locating  the collection of evidences starts. First of all the fragile evidences must be collected because they are likely to be contaminated easily and may loose its evidentiary value. The evidences like fingerprints and body fluids must be given first priority.

  1. Fingerprints:

Mostly it found in ‘point of entry ‘of the spot. If everything are visible they can collect through scaled photography but everything are not visible then they need to be developed and lifted through scaled photography. If finger print is found in small portable objects the whole object is send to the forensic lab separately.

  1. Body fluids (Blood, salvia, semen, urine): If body fluids are fresh they are collected by means of a dropper or a pipette and placed in clean glass bottles and generally avoid plastic containers. If they are dried it is scrapped out by clean blade and placed in a clean paper or cellophane bags separately. If body fluids are present in clothes, bed-sheets etc. In such cases the whole stained cloth or piece containing the stain must be cut and send to the lab.
  2. Hair, Fiber and Glass fracture;

They are collected by means of forceps and placed in a clean paper. Every piece of evidences must be collected separately.

  1. Weapons, Bullets, and Cartridges;

These are collected by cotton gloves or with the help of clean white handkerchief and placed in wooden boxes with support in between. They are packed separately for lab.

  1. Foot-Prints and tire marks:

These are mainly found in out-door scene of crimes. The print or caste is developed by experts in the scene itself. Such prints developed are photographed by means of a scale and is taken to the lab.

b.Victim:

Sample of blood (15-20 ml), hair, cloth, finger print are to be collected. The whole body of the victim is also photographed as evidences to show any marked if any in the whole body of the victim.

c.Suspect and his/her surrounding:

Clothes, blood, hair, seem, handwriting, finger print etc. is collected from the suspect as the case demand.