Relevant Fact

All logical facts are not relevant but only those facts are relevant which fall within the guideline laid down by rules of evidence. The Evidence Act 2031 Sec.3 says that any facts which tend to prove or disprove fact in issue is relevant fact. The does not give any more description as to relevant fact.

Indian Evidence Act 1872 has given elaborate analysis and explanation on relevant fact, which is equally useful in Nepalese context as well. They may be stated as follows:

Fact forming part of the same transaction is regarded as relevant fact. Therefore anything  said  and  done  by persons involved  in any incident  is relevant  as forming  part  of the same  transaction. Similarly expression made by spectator being influenced by the incidence is relevant.The relevant  fact is based on the Roman  Phrase   that “in jure non-remota,causa sed  proxima spectator” means it is not remote  but  the approximate  cause that count.

In the  case of  Homes vs. Newman ,British Court has established  the  Doctrine of  Res  Gestae .The Court  said  that “A phrase  adopted  to provide  a respectable  legal  clock  for variety of cases  to which  no formula  of precision  can be applied”.

The Nepalese provision  may be also stated  as statement  on the spot. Such  facts are relevant because  they are  spontaneous .The statement  is accompanied  by exhibition  of bodily  condition .It should  not be  descriptive.

Fact showing occasion  cause  or effect  in relation  to fact in issue  is relevant  as evidence. Occasion  denotes  opportunity .’A’ is charged  with robbing ‘B’ .The  fact  that  on some  earlier occasion ‘B’ has visited  market  where  he had  exhibited  large  sum  in presence  of some   person  including ‘A’  is relevant  as fact showing occasion.

Fact showing motive ,preparation, previous or subsequent  conduct is relevant. Normally in any  pre  mediated  activity  person does not act without motive .Motive throws   light  in to the  incidence. So motive  is one  of the relevant  fact that prove in any case.

All types of pre contemplated  activity  undergo some  sort  of preparation .Preparation  is relevant  fact  to  show  that  how the accused accomplished  his/her enterprise. Therefore procuring  poison  from  a shop is  relevant  fact in a poison case.

Any conduct of the accused designated by him/her  to avoid detection  may be regarded  as his/her  previous  or subsequent  conduct , which may be regarded  as relevant fact  in subsequent  trial. The fact he/she absconded  from his/her house immediately   after the incidence is relevant  fact showing  his/her  subsequent  conduct.