The process of splitting a vector into various parts or components is called “RESOLUTION OF VECTOR”

These parts of a vector may act in different directions and are called “components of vector”.

We can resolve a vector into a number of components .Generally there are three components of vector viz. Component along X-axiscalled x-component
Component along Y-axis called Y-component
Component along Z-axis called Z-component

Here we will discuss only two components x-component & Y-component which are perpendicular to each other.These components are called rectangular components of vector.

METHOD OF RESOLVING
A VECTOR INTO
RECTANGULAR COMPONENTS

Consider a vector acting at a point making an angle q with positive X-axis.Vector is
represented by a line OA.From point A draw a perpendicular AB on X-axis.Suppose OB and BA
represents two vectors.Vector OA is parallel to X-axis and vector BA is parallel to Y-axis.Magnitude
of these vectors are V_{x} and V_{y} respectively.By the method of head to tail we notice that the sum of these vectors is equal to vector .Thus V_{x} and V_{y} are the rectangular components of vector . V_{x} = Horizontal component of .
V_{y} = Vertical component of .