To Cicero, there are two kinds of laws in the state. They are:
- Law of nature
- The legal enactments of law of the state
Attributes of Law of Nature
- Natural law is a single law governing the whole universe.
- It is indivisible and ancient.
- It is right reason, eternal, immutable (no changeable) and it is the source of state itself.
- It is self-imposed and spread among all itself.
- Natural law is the law of moral as well as the law of God.
- Natural law is not changeable.
- There is consistency in natural law, no gap, no deadlock remains forever.
- Equal treatment before the eyes of God and common justice, i.e., natural law.
- His concept of law of nature is based on the doctrine of the natural equality of man.
- Men are not equal in learning, wealth and physical vigor but equal in the possession of reason in their nature as human beings.
- Inequality is man mad and not natural.
Three ideas stand out in the political theory of Cicero
1.The authority of the state proceeds from the people.
2.It should be exercised in accordance with law.
3.The exercise of the state authority is justified only on moral grounds.
- Cicero gives emphasis on world unity, universal law, moral law and law of God which remained as a dominant factor over the whole medieval period.