Article 1 of the Montevideo Convention on Rights and Duties of States 1933 has identified following qualifications of statehood:
- a permanent population
- a definite territory
- a government, and
- a capacity to enter into relations with other states.
Elements of State
- A state has space or territory that has internationally recognized boundaries (boundary disputes are OK).
- A state has people who live there on an ongoing basis.
- A state has economic activity and an organized economy.
- A state regulates foreign and domestic trade and issues money.
- A state has the power of social engineering, such as education.
- A state has a transportation system for moving goods and people.
- A state has a government that provides public services and police power.
- A state has sovereignty. No other State should have power over the country’s territory.
- A state has external recognition. It has been “voted into the club” by other countries.