Statehood and Elements of State

Article 1 of the Montevideo Convention on Rights and Duties of States 1933 has identified following qualifications of statehood:

  1. a permanent population
  2. a definite territory
  3. a government, and
  4. a capacity to enter into relations with other states.

Elements of State

  • A state has space or territory that has internationally recognized boundaries (boundary disputes are OK).
  • A state has people who live there on an ongoing basis.
  • A state has economic activity and an organized economy.
  • A state regulates foreign and domestic trade and issues money.
  • A state has the power of social engineering, such as education.
  • A state has a transportation system for moving goods and people.
  • A state has a government that provides public services and police power.
  • A state has sovereignty. No other State should have power over the country’s territory.
  • A state has external recognition. It has been “voted into the club” by other countries.

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