As sociology is considered a very popular and fast-growing science came into existence (only after 1839 AD) is vast and broad discipline. It has lots of specialists so that we can divide it into various sub-divisions on the basis of its contents.
The main branches of sociology are as follows:
- Theoretical Sociologist It includes micro theory or small/middle/large theory. The theories of Karl Marx, August Cimte, Max Wever, Emmile Durkhaim, Sorokin, etc are studied under the theories of sociology. Eg. The theories of “Economic determinism” and the theory of “Class Struggle” of Karl Marx. Eg. “Theory of Suicide” by Emmile Durkhaim.
- Historical Sociology It is the study of social facts and social groups. It studies the background of any social event. How and when different social groups or organizations originated? Eg. The history of Hindu, Roman, Greek, etc. and other major civilizations were studied by P.A. Sorkin.
- Sociology of Knowledge The newly emerged branch of sociology indicates that our knowledge is the product of social phenomena. This means our knowledge is always influenced by society. The economic religious political and other interests save human belief and ideas.
- Criminology This branch of sociology studies the criminal behavior of individuals or groups. Origin of crime its types of nature, causes as well as law, punishment, police, etc. come under this study, The efforts for the improvement is also studied. Different organizations establish to control the crime as well as their role also come under its study.
- Sociology of Religion This branch studies the structure of the religion in the social system as no society is free from the influence of it. It analyses the social behavior of human beings. It also studies the religious constitutions and their role in the society. Augste Comte, Emmile Durkheim, Herbet Spencer did the study of elementary forms of religious life.
- Sociology of Economy This branch of sociology studies production, distribution, consumption and exchange of goods and services. This branch also studies the economic activities of the society in which the focus is given about the socio-cultural factors. The access in production, the mode of distribution, the real consumers, the role of culture in such activities are studied under it. Eg. “Why Hindus don’t eat Cow?”
- Rural Sociology This branch of sociology studies the way of life of rural people as the rural population is higher than the urban. The patterns of life such as behavior, belief, culture, tradition norms, values, etc. are totally different than of urban people. So, it studies the rural society in scientific way. It also studies rural life, social institutions, social structure, social processes, etc. of the rural society.
- Urban Sociology This branch of sociology studies the way of life of urban people. It gives information about the social organizations and instution of urban society as well as social structure and social interaction. It also studies the social pathology of urban society such as discrimination) crime, corruption, robbery, beggary, loot, theft, unemployment, prostitution, environmental pollution, etc.
- Political Sociology This branch of sociology studies different political moments of society. It includes the study of different political ideology (view), their origin, development and functions. In this study, different political parties are considered as social institutions. Various activities and behavior of political parties are studied in this branch. As they are the part of the social system.
- Sociology of Demography Demography of scientific mathematical and statically study of population. It studies about the size, situation, composition, density, distribution, and measurement etc. of the population. In this branch of sociology, we study the distribution of human population with the analysis of population change in sociological perspectives. It also finds out the determining factors of population change and its trend.
- Sociology of Law Sociology of law and legal system are considered as the part of society, as social institution. Law is one of the very important means of social control. Law is related with other different social sub systems. Such as economy, nature of distribution, authority, structure of family kinship relationships, etc. So, this branch of sociology is related to moral order for the society as formulation and implementation of rules and regulations, law and order come under this.
- Industrial Sociology This branch of sociology is concerned with the industrial relationship of the human beings. It studies the different industrial organizations and institutions. As well as their interrelationship and links with other various institutions of society. It also studies the inter-relationships of industrial institutions with various aspects of human life such as culture, beliefs, customs, religion or the way of life.
Besides the above mentioned various branches of sociology, other different branches are also emerging day by day as sociology is a very broad social science. Some of their names are listed below:
- Sociology of Family
- Sociology of Race
- Sociology of Occupation
- Sociology of Art
- Sociology of literature
- Sociology of Peace
- Sociology of Development
- Sociology of Military
- Sociology of Culture
- Sociology of Planning
- Sociology of Moment
- Sociology of Psychology
- Sociology of Differentiation
- Sociology of Stratification, etc.