Basis and underlying principle

The principle of estoppels  is based on  the principle of equity and good conscience .The  object of the principle  of estoppels  is  to prevent  fraud  and  to manifest  good faith amongst the parties .This principle is enshrine  in the Roman Maxim’Allgans Contraria Non Est Audiendus.’It means ‘a man alleging  contradictory  facts ought  not be heard.”This principle of estoppels was laid in the case of  Pickard vs. Seers.

The object of the doctrine  of estoppels  is to protect the interest  of a person  who acted in  good faith , believing the statement  of another. It is based on the three moral principles as stated below:

a.No one can blow hot and cold in the same breath.

b.No one can take  the advantage of one’s wrong ;and

c.No on can approbate(accept)and reprobate(reject) at the same time.

Essential Elements:

To constitute’ estoppel ‘the following conditions are to be satisfied.

a.There must be a declaration (act or omission) on the part  of one person, intentionally causing  or permitting another  person to believe a thing to be true.

b.The other person (to whom the declaration is made) must believe that thing  to be true.

c.There must be some act in pursuance of that belief.