International Organizations Content
Causes of Failure of League of Nations
League Of Nations was created after WWI and was first comprehensive organization which came into existence on Jan.10 1920. with hopes that this organization may provide a forum to nations where they can settle out their disputes at International level and can prevent world from another war.
The success of League of Nations can be judge on the basis of its handling disputes and international conflicts incidents. The authenticity of any organization can be checked by its utility of solving political and social issues.
During 1920’s League provided a useful but modest addition to international diplomacy where round of negotiations and diplomatic relations develop. Stress was made on sitting together of nations for the settlement of disputes. Security was provided to frontiers and problems of Disarmaments was solved.
but unfortunately League was helping and solving matters of minor states because of influence of BIG POWERS on world League failed to implement its will on them which gave a true picture of its contradiction of covenant.
League failed in its main object of maintaining peace in the world . Inspite of its efforts for two decades , the whole world was involved in a war in 1939. By that time , the machinery of the League Of Nations had completely broken down.
The failure of League Of Nations can be attributed to many causes.
They are :
1. Absence Of Great Powers :
It was unfortunate that the covenant of the League of Nations was made a part parcel of the peace settlement. It would have been better if it had kept separate. There were many states which consider the Treaty Of Versailles as a treaty of revenge, and were not prepared to ratify the same. By not retifying the treaty , they refused to be the members of the League.
The absence of the great powers from the international organization weakened her and was partly responsible for its ultimate failure.
Japan , Germany and Italy also left the League and their defection must have weakened the League.
2. Domination Of France and England :
It was felt that the League Of Nations was dominated by England and France and consequently the other states began to loose their confidence in that organization.
3. Rise Of Dictatorship :
The rise of dictatorship in Italy, Japan and Germany also weakened the chances of success of the League of Nations .
Japan was determined to acquire fresh territories and her unscrupulous patriotism threw to the winds of all principles of international law and morality. If the League was to prepared to condone her fault of conquering Manchuria . She was to prepared to give up her membership of the League and that is exactly what she actually did.
When League decided to take action against Italy on account for her aggression in Abyssinia , Italy left the League.
In the wake up spreading dictatorship states continued to be the members of the League so long as their national interest were not in any way endangered and sacrificed.
4. Limitations Of Legal Methods :
The League Of Nations demonstrated the limitations of the legal methods.
The League was fairly efficient in structure and probably would have worked if there had existed a realization of a community of interest.
Law grows out of public opinion can not operate in disjunction with it. In the case of League law proposed and opinion disposed.
5. Loss Of Faith In League:
Small nations lost their faith in the effectiveness of The League to save them from any aggression.
The principle of collective security was not applied in actual practice. Each state decided to follow her own policy , the principle of security weakened and thus there was nothing to check the aggressive policy of Hitler.
6. Constitutional Defect :
The League Of Nations failed because of certain constitutional defects. In the cases of disputes brought before the council of the League under Article 11, decisions of the council had to be unanimous in order to adjudge a nation guilty of having violated the covenant by resort to war or unjustifiable aggression, In Article 15. If the decisions were not unanimous verdict under Article 11, the disputing parties were free to resume the hostilities after a period of 3 months. By allowing exceptions , the covenant seemed to assumed that was remained the normal solution of international disputes.
7. Narrow Nationalism :
Narrow nationalism was still the dominant among the peoples of the world. France was increasingly concerned with her national security , while Great Britain considered that problem less urgent than promoting commerce by fostering international trade. Japan intoxicated by her emergence as a world power , while Italy was desperate to redress her damage . Germany was indulge to retain her national prestige even at the cost of an aggressive military adventure.
8. Lack Of Mutual Co-Operation :
The member of the league lack mutual co-operation which is always essential for the success of an organization.
For France the League was an instrument for providing her security from Germany.
On the other hand Great Britain wanted League protecting her imperialist interest .
Hitler found League a great hurdle on the way of rise of Germany.
9. Separate Lines Of Thoughts :
The League was the offspring of a marriage of two separate lines of thoughts.
In one of these which were developed my Mr. Taft and others in the U.S. The stress was on organized forces. There has to be “League of enforced peace”
On the other hand the British attitude was extremely hesitant in its approach to the nation’s enforced peace.
If the fourteen points of Woodrow Wilson are consulted we find that a general association of nation is projected “ for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity”
In its proposal the world peace is not mentioned and international co-operation is restricted to one limited object.
These two inconsistent principles were incorporated in the fabric of the League itself and no wonder it failed.
10. Manchurian Crisis :
On the night of Sep. 18-19, 1931 some Japanese soldiers making an attempt to blow off the railway line near Mukdan .Japan took full advantage of this minor incident and on the 18th Sep.1931 She invaded Manchuria and also occupied all Japanese cities north of Mukdan.
League of Nations failed to implement sanctions on Japan and on March 27 , 1933 Japan decided to withdraw her membership of League of Nation.