Business Studies XI Content
Component of Business
Scope of business
Business covers wide area and all economic activities. It also includes all types of industry and commerce. Industries are related to the activities of production of goods and services and commerce is related to distribution of goods and services from producers (industries) and customers.
Types of industries
1. Genetic industries:
Genetic industries are also called heredity industries that involve in production of goods from plants and animals to earn profit. Those industries which produce medicines from herbs, perfume from flowers, milk and meat form animals are called genetic industries
2. Extraction industries:
Industries that are involved in extracting the resources from the sources of nature are called extraction industries. It supplies the raw material to other industries. These types of industries are generally based in mining, fishing etc.
3. Construction industries:
Those types of industries which are related to construction of different infrastructures are called construction industries. They basically construct road, bridges, houses and so on . It helps in development of country
4. Manufacturing industry:
It is related to produce finished goods. It processes raw materials into finished goods. There are mainly 4 types of manufacturing industry they are :
A. Analytical industry:
It is an industry which produces goods by analyzing raw materials in scientific way. In this industry various goods ate purchased by single material. For example dairy product (milk, ghee, butter, ice cream from milk)
B. Processing industry:
The industry which is involved for production of goods and services by using different steps or stage is called processing industry. For example for processing cotton into thread the processes of spinning, weaving, dying, bleaching is used.
C. Synthetic industry:
The industry which is involved for using various raw materials to produce a single good is called synthetic industry. For example to produce cement limestone, red soil, chemicals etc are used.
D. Assembling industry:
The industry which is involved for production of goods by combining different parts which are already manufactures by different industries is called assembling industry. For example TV, computer, mobile, watch manufacturing industries.
It is related with buying, selling and exchanging of goods and services. It is related to economic activities to earn profit. The role of bridge between manufacturer and customer is played by commerce
Types of commerce:
Trade is related to buying and selling goods and services for earning profit. It supplies quality goods with reasonable price. Those activities which are related to buying, selling and distributing goods in market is known as trade
Types of trade
1. Home trade:
Home trade means national, domestic or internal trade i.e. Buying and selling within a nation. In home trade both buyer and seller are from the same nation. In home trade task is simple than foreign trade. It is classified into two types they are.
A. Wholesale trade:
When trader buy goods in bulk amount and resell to retail in small volume is called whole sale trade. In this trade goods are bought from manufacturer and are sold to retail. It acts as a middleman between manufacturer and retailer. It deals with special product
B. Retail trade:
When trader buy goods in bulk amount and resell to customer in small volume is called retail trade. In this trade goods are bought from wholesaler and are sold to customer. It acts as a middleman between wholesaler and customer. It deals with various types of product.
2. Foreign trade:
Foreign trade means international, global, external trade i.e. Buying and selling is between two or more nation. In foreign trade buyer and seller are from different nation. In foreign trade task is difficult than home trade. It is classified into three types they are.
A good or service brought into one country from another is called import. Along with exports, imports form the backbone of international trade. The higher the value of imports entering a country, compared to the value of exports, the more negative that country’s balance of trade becomes. Buying goods from India, china is called import.
A good or service sold to another country from one is called export. Along with imports, exports form the backbone of international trade. The higher the value of exports exiting a country, compared to the value of imports, the more positive that country’s balance of trade becomes. Exporting herbs, garments to Germany, India is the example of export
C. Entry port:
The trade in which a country purchases the goods from one country and sells it to another country is called entry port trade. The goods bought from a country is not used for self benefit but is rather exported to another country. For example India buys herbs from Nepal and sells it to china.
Auxiliaries of trade:
It supports or assists the trade activities. It helps to run business smoothly. It helps for transfer goods from production area to consumption area. It creates time and place utility.
It transfers goods from one place to another. There are many means of transportation that can assist business and trade activities. They are air travel. Bus route, sea route, rope route etc. It delivers right product and right time in right place. It creates time utility
It is one of the auxiliary of trade. It helps to protect and store goods until customers uses them. It provides the goods then demand is created. It also helps to provide unseasonal goods.
It acts as nutrition to trading activities. It helps to reduce risk and uncertainties. It is a contract between organization and their future. The system that takes the responsibility of compensation of certain risk is called insurance system.
Banks are the financial institution that supports for traders. It provides loan, investment, credits facilities to the trading companies. It helps for expansion and flexibility of trade.
It is a supporter to trade. It provides information to customer about goods and services. Its aim is for creation of demand. It also acts as a promotional tool.