Conceptual Framework


The power and strength of government come from the people in a democracy. The word “democracy” comes from two Greek words: “demos” meaning “people” and “kratos” meaning “power” or “authority.” The Nepal has a democracy.

Some countries have autocratic governments. The word “autocracy,” the opposite of democracy, comes from the Greek words: “autos” meaning “self” and “kratos” meaning “power.” In an autocratic government, one person or group holds all the power, without the participation, or sometimes even the consent, of the people. Autocracy is a form of government in which the political power is held by a single self-appointed ruler who holds all the political power. In a democracy, the extreme control is held by the people under a free electoral method.

An autocracy is a form of government in which one person possesses unlimited power. An autocrat is a person (as a monarch) ruling with unlimited authority. The term autocrat is derived from the word autokratōr (αὐτοκράτωρ, lit. “self-ruler”, or “one who rules by himself”). Compare with oligarchy (“rule by the few”) and democracy (“rule by the people”). Today the term autocrat is usually understood as being synonymous with despot, tyrant and dictator, although each of these terms originally had a separate and distinct meaning.

Autocracy is not synonymous with totalitarianism, as the latter concept was forged in 1923 to distinguish modern regimes from traditional dictatorships. Nor is it synonymous with military dictatorship, as these often take the form of “collective presidencies” such as the South American juntas. However, an autocracy may be totalitarian or be a military dictatorship.

The term monarchy also differs in that it emphasizes the hereditary characteristic, though some Slavic monarchs, specifically Russian Emperors traditionally included the title “autocrat” as part of their official styles. This usage originated in the Byzantine Empire, where the term autokratōr was traditionally employed in Greek to translate the Latin imperator, and was used along with Basileus to mean “emperor”. This use remains current in the modern Greek language, where the term is used for any emperor (e.g. the Emperor of Japan), regardless of the actual power of the monarch. Historically, many monarchs ruled autocratically but eventually their power was diminished and dissolved with the introduction of constitutions giving the people the power to make decisions for themselves through elected bodies of government.



The autocrat needs some kind of power structure to rule. Very few rulers were in the position to rule with only their personal charisma and skills, however great these may be, without the help of others. Most historical autocrats depended on their nobles, the military, the priesthood or others, who could turn against the ruler and depose or murder them. As such, it can be difficult to draw a clear line between historical autocracies and oligarchies.

Jean Baptine Rascine (1639-1699) (French Play Writer), “Autocrat are tired of making himself/herself loved, he want to make him/herself feared.”

Winston Churchill (1874-1965) (British Prime Minister and Writer), “Dictators ride to and fro upon tigers which they dare not dismount. And the tigers are getting hungry.”

Autocracy is a political system under which one ruler wields unlimited power, restricted by no constitutional provisions or effective political opposition. the autocrat need some kind of power structure to rule, like laws (legislation)-mostly martial laws.

Without any legal authority no state authority either autocrat are entitle to run its governance or the rule. But this may not had been happened in ancient period but it is must in modern era that there need to be of any legal authority to establish themselves as a ruler. So, they use legislation /law as their weapon to establish themselves as ruler.

Example:

Nepal:

  • King Mahendra, seized absolute control of government by proclaiming a new constitution in 1962; that banned the formation of political parties and allowed for the autocratic rule.
  • King Gyanendra dismissed Deuba, dissolve parliament and assumed full power over the government, based on Art 127 of Nepalese Constitution 1990.

Europe:

  • Between 1925 and 1931, The Fascists consolidate power through a series of new laws that provided a legal basis for Italy’s official transformation into a single-party state.
  • Nazi government issued Nazi style of law name “anti- Semitic Laws”. These new laws denied that Jews being German and was used totally against the Jews by Hitler.

These all events proves that autocrat use the legislation as tool to improve their autocracy. By using law they can pronounce any activity which is against them as illegal. Legislation is the effective instrument to govern the society in autocracy. This is an important tool as compare to other law making bodies. In autocracy the legislation is made to fulfill the interest of elite.