History of Democracy in Nepal


1768 – Nepal is unified by Prithivi Narayan Shah.
• 1846 – Jung Bahadur Rana, started the Rana regime overshadows the Shah dynasty for 104 years
• 1946- Nepali Congress Founded
• 1948- The country’s first constitution, the Government of Nepal Act, is promulgated; Prime Minister Padma Shamsher Rana resigns in the wake of opposition to the new constitution from conservative Ranas; Mohan Shamsher becomes prime minister; constitution is suspended.
• 1949- Communist Party of Nepal Founded
• 1951 – February 1951 sees the advent of democracy in Nepal; the Interim Government Act of 1951 is promulgated; a promise is made that an election of the Constituent Assembly will be held, but the election never happens.

1959 – The Nepali Congress wins the general elections and forms the government with a two thirds majority. But the government lasts for only one and a half years, as it is dismissed by the king.

• 1960 – King Mahendra arrests representatives of the elected government.

• 1962-The king introduces a new Constitution and the Panchayat system in 1962,

• 1979-80- the public unrest of, led mainly by students, forces the king to announce a referendum. the Panchayat system got 55 per cent of votes, against the 45 per cent for a multiparty system.



• 1990 – A mass movement, called jointly by the NC and the ULF, forces the king to lift the ban on political parties Nepal History of Democracy

• 1991- The general election brings the NC to power, with a majority of seats in the parliament. However, the government calls mid-term polls due to divisions within the ruling party.

• 1994 – The mid-term polls produce a hung parliament. The UML, as the largest party in the parliament, forms a minority government, but the government cannot be sustained for long.

• 1996 – The CPN-Maoist launches the People’s War.

• There were two unsuccessful negotiations between the government and the CPN-Maoist in 2001 and 2003.

• The country is kept under a state of emergency.

• 1999 – The NC comes back to power with a majority government after the third parliamentary elections.

• 2002 – King Gyanendra—who ascended the throne after the royal massacre of June 2001—dismisses the Deuba government in October 2002 and nominates all successive governments.

• 2005- Through a proclamation in February 2005, King Gyanendra usurps absolute power and takes up the post of Chairman of the Council of Ministers.

• 2006 April – An alliance of the SPA and the CPN-Maoist initiates a mass movement, Jana Andolan II, against the king’s rule, on the basis of a 12-point understanding reached in November 2005.

• 2006 May- The reinstated parliament issues a political declaration

• 2006 November – The signing of the CPA between the government and the CPN-Maoist.

• 2007 January- An interim Parliament, which includes the representatives of the CPN Maoist, is formed, and the Interim Constitution is promulgated.

• Protesting against the Interim Constitution, the Madheshi movement flares up. 27 Maoists are killed in Gaur by MJF supporters.

• 2007 March- The interim legislature amends the Interim Constitution;

• 2007 April The CPN-Maoist joins the interim government.

• 2007 June The interim legislature amends the Interim Constitution again; the amendments empower the parliament to abolish the monarchy and to remove the prime minister on the strength of two-thirds of the votes in the House.

• 2007 October- Parliament passes resolutions for the declaration of Nepal as a republic and for the adoption of an all-out PR system for the CA election

• 2007 December- Amends the Interim Constitution, and Nepal is declared as a republic state, but subject to the ratification by the first meeting of the CA.

• 10 April 2008 – First CA election; UCPN (M)-220, NC-110, UML-103

• 27 May 2012- CA Dissolute and 22 November CA election date

• 19 Feb. 2013- Khila Raj Regmi lead election cabinet.

• 19 Nov.2013- Second CA Election, Nepali Congress (196), UML- 175 , UCPN (M)- 80.