Marx’s View on State


  • The state is not a ‘natural’ but man-made institution. It is an expression of human alienation, an instrument of a particular class, it exists for the benefit of only a section of the society, i.e., haves class.
  • State is the product and development of class polarization and instrument of class rule.
  • The basis of the state is force. Marx said that ‘the state is a parasite feeding upon, and clogging free movement of society.
  • The state forms a part of the superstructure that rises upon the productive forces. The form of government undergoes a change whenever these is change in the mode of production. The specific economic form ‘determines’ the relations of rulers and ruled. Legal relations also had their roots in the material conditions of life.
  • The law of the state, i.e., the bourgeois state is ‘subtle and poisoned instrument’ which defends the interests of the exploiters.
  • The laws had to formulated by class enemies in the interest of the wealthy and haves class. Labor classes who possess nothing can only be bound by the law as long as they are too weak to change them. State is a machine to crush and repress the labors class.
  • Thus the purpose of the state, according to Karl Marx, is the protection of private property and its function is the oppression of the non-possessing by possessed class.
  • Whatever may be the form of the state whether democratic, republic or monarchy, political power is merely the organized power of one class oppressing another.
  • State serves the interest of the haves and dominant class, and it is the executive committee of bourgeois.
  • State ownership lies on bourgeois so state itself is bourgeois’ state, a deception, it facilitates the exploitation of proletariat class by the bourgeois.
  • State’s function is thus repressive.
  • State is responsible to wide the gap between two classes, so it shows the need of class struggle which could ultimately bring the stage of the abolition of the state in the following way:(a)The overthrow of the bourgeois’s state by revolution(b)The establishment of the dictatorship of proletariat class.

    (c)Ultimately there would be withering away of the state as a result of class struggle.

  • No need of state according to Karl Marx, Bukharian supports this and said that “State is a league of robbers and a union of master class.”
  • Classless and stateless society comes into being which is created by the production forces.