Biology XII Notes for Biology Notes

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Human immunodeficiency virus infection / acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a disease of the human immune system caused by infection with human immunodeficiency virus i.e. HIV. The HIV was first isolated by Luc Montagnier and Robert Gallo. HIV cause AIDS by destroying T4 cells. Hence, this weakens the immune system and allows opportunistic infections.


Modes of Transmission:
HIV is transmitted by following main routes:

  • Sexual contact: By unsafe sex with infected persons
  • Exposure to infected body fluids or tissues like infected blood transfusions.
  • From mother to child during pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding, hence also called as vertical transmission).
  • Use of infected needles, syringes etc., esp. among drug addicts.

Symptoms of AIDS:

The Symptoms include:

  • Continuous fever and diarrhea for more than one month
  • Weight loss by more than 10%.
  • Many individuals develop an influenza-like illness or a mononucleosis-like illness 2–4 weeks post exposure while others have no significant symptoms.
  • Symptoms occur in 40–90% of cases and most commonly include fever, large tender lymph nodes, throat inflammation, a rash, headache, and/or sores of the mouth and genitals.
  • Gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting or diarrhea may occur
  • People with AIDS have an increased risk of developing various viral induced cancers including: Kaposi’s sarcoma, Burkitt’s lymphoma, primary central nervous system lymphoma, and cervical cancer.

Diagnosis of AIDS:

  • Western blot test
  • Ora quick method (by FDA)
  • Blood test
  • ELISA test

Treatments of AIDS:

  • Currently, there’s no treatment for AIDS but use of HAART drugs DLV, 3TZ, ATC etc. can prolong the life of patient.
  • Healthy life style and exercise can reduce the circulation of virus in the blood.

Preventions of AIDS:

  • Use of condoms during sex
  • Avoiding unsafe and multiple sex
  • Pregnant woman mustn’t give birth
  • Blood should be screened before transfusion
  • Materials should be sterilized before using
  • Sex education on school and university levels
  • Public awareness

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