Business Studies XI Content
Office accommodation and layout
Office accommodation and layout
Meaning of office accommodation
It is the process of selecting appropriate building in a favorable location, establishing different sections and departments, proving or arranging resources in a scientific way. The purpose of office accommodation is to create sound working environment and to bring efficiency and rapidness in office work. It is important for both employees and outsider. Office employees spend a long time office. Bad accommodation can cause boredom and frustration among employees. Bad environment also may cause bad impression to outsiders.
Selection of office building
1. Shape and size of office building
It is one of the major factors that should be considered while selecting office building. It should have adequate space to accommodate all machines, equipment, and employee with furniture and enough space for flexibility. It should be considered taking the base of both present and future needs
2. Lighting and ventilation
An office building should have adequate lighting and ventilation. It helps a lot to increase efficiency and enhance worker’s morale. Well lighted and ventilated accommodation puts less pressure on the employees and also reduces the physical and mental strain and consequently the efficiency is higher.
3. Convenience to customers and employees
While selecting office building it should consider the convenience of customer and employees. It should not be far from the related trade center, must have proper toilet and canteen services and food hospitality and utilities.
The cost of building affects on total budget of organization. The building purchased or built must be within the budget of organization. There should be balance between requirement of space, capacity of the organization and the cost for covering the expanses.
Flexibility of office building in its shape and size should be considered while selecting the office building. It must also match the nature of organization.
6. Layout facility
The efficiency of men and machine depend upon the layout. The proper layout makes office attraction. For this furniture, machine and other goods are necessary. This also helps in the internal arrangement of office.
- Selection of office location:
- Nearness to customer: The office should be accessible to customers. They do not like long distances to make business inquiries. The office should be accessible to other parties who are in regular contact.
- Nearness to related business: It is desirable to locate the office near the offices of related business. It should be established in the same line of trade.
- Availability of infrastructure: The infrastructure should be available in office location. It consists of transport, communication, power, water and parking facilities.
- Nature of business: The nature of business affects location of office. Office of manufacturing business in located near the source of raw materials, labor and service facilities. Office of trading and banking business is located in commercial centers near the customers. Office of perishable goods business is located near the market for such goods.
- Availability of human resources: Needed human resources should be available for office. They can be skilled, semi-skilled and unskilled. All facilities must be available for employees
- Environment: The office location should have healthy environment. It should not be near polluted rivers or waste disposal sites. It should be free from noise, dust and pollution.
- Cost of space: Sufficient space should be available at reasonable cost for the office. Space should be available for future expansion.
- Government laws: The selection of location should comply with government laws and regulation at national and local levels.
Meaning of office layout
It is systematic arrangement of office amenities. It is arrangement of staffs, machines, equipment, furniture and other physical facilities within the limit of available floor space. Its purposes are to utilize space in the best possible manners, to make the outlook of the office attractive and to increase efficiency of the staff. It is defined as arrangement and placing of men, material, machines and money to the optimum level.
Main aims are
- To utilize the floor space properly
- To run the office work smoothly
- To help for the motivation of person.
- To help for the minimization of physical hazards and accident
- To make proper supervision
- To maintain the attractiveness for impressing the customers and visitor.
- To try for the provision of comfort and satisfaction of employees
- To help to provide security
Principle of office layout
Principle of flow of work:
It is the layout which helps for smooth and effective flow of office works. Simple, easy and prompt work flow and essential for work progress
- Principle of free movement and observation:
Office layout should allow the free movement of employees. There should also be proper supervision and observation of works of movement too
- Principle of effective supervision:
There should be free supervision of flow of works, movement of personnel, cost, wastage, balance of budget, quality of office works etc.
- Principle of departmental relationships:
For the office layout related departments are inter related and those inter related departments should be placed side by side.
- Principle of flexibility:
Office should be flexible enough to facilitate the expansion in the future.
- Principle of maximum utilization:
As the time flows, there is increase in cost of every thing as per the situation of the economy if the country and the area where office is established. There are very les cases of deflation basically in developing countries. Therefore, when office is set up then there must be maximum utilization of employees, materials, space, machines and resources. There should be reduction of wastage.
- Principle of pleasing appearance:
Interior design, lighting, ventilation and cleanliness should be maintained. Office must be well furnished and pleasing enough to make it attractive to all the customers and visitors
- Principle of good ventilation:
Office must have enough doors, windows, and ventilation for constant supply of fresh air.
- Principle of good lighting:
Office should try to provide natural light that is sunlight. Dark places should be avoided for establishment of office.
- Principle of safety:
An office layout must be based on the safety. It should reduce office accidents like theft, fire, damage and so on .office machine must be implemented properly
- Principle of service facilities:
There must be provisions of good canteen, lights, lifts, telephone, and toilets.
- Principle of providing private offices:
In a office. Separate rooms should be provided to some important employees. If the work is confidential in nature then private room should be provided. it is better to use movable partition to provide privacy
Steps in designing office layout:
1. Securing the blue print of the organization
It is the first step to secure the blue print of office building to know about the space available of office works. It should be secured from top management. It blue print is not available then the space should be measured and the sketch of building should be made
2. Assessing the need of the organization
Need of all department should be identified. Managers should consult the department heads to access space requirement. Number of employees, method and nature of works , equipment and machines. Present and future requirement should be determined. It is the second step of designing the layout
3. Arranging templates:
It is the third step in designing the office layout. The manager should prepare model known as template. Templates are thin plates of board or metal that represents actual space with decorations. They provide tentative design of office space. Several adjustments, change might me made before final model is finalized.
4. Indicating the electric wiring:
While designing the office layout, electric wiring should be properly managed. The location should be properly wired to avoid the risk of short circuits and fluctuation of voltage.
5. Submitting the plan to top management for approval:
After making plans and policies, it is submitted to the various departments. The plans must be discussed with the departmental heads and supervisors. They check the plans and finally approve it. Then only the plans are ready to be implemented